16 set. Com base nas obras A teoria da democracia revisitada – o debate contemporâneo (Giovanni Sartori), Poliarquia: Participação e Oposição. 24 set. Uma teoria da democracia como processo decisório. Democracia governada e democracia governante. Decisões políticas; Riscos externos. From a contemporary point of view, within political science, reference may be made to the work of Giovanni Sartori, A Teoria da Democracia Revisitada, trans.
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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The media play a key role in democracies, providing elements so that the professional politicians can be inspected and also by providing elements for voters to form their electoral decision. In our study we aim to assess whether in Brazil there is some correlation between the electoral interest and the interest in newspapers.
We developed two frequencies of the Beta type on Google Trends, one for the topic newspaper and another for the topic election for a period of 10 years, from to Democracy; Elections; Newspapers; Google Trends. Because of the importance that the media plays in politics, many studies have been made in the recent years on the quality of information, especially during election periods.
However, most studies give the media content wide intelligibility, but they do not go in the same direction to explain how the voter seeks information and how often he seeks political information and in what ways. In this sense, the goal of this study is to identify whether there is any correlation between the electoral clear interest and the interest in newspapers.
A Teoria da Democracia Revisitada by Matheus Hebling on Prezi
Our hypothesis is that, with the media being historical actors in spreading political information, it is likely that there is correlation between the popular interest in elections and interest in newspapers. After all, newspapers are means of obtaining information to gauge the electoral decision making. To test our hypothesis, we used the Google Trends tool of Beta type to trace their frequency, one for the topic newspaper and another for the topic election.
In this sense, it is suggested that this result is epiphenomenon of the strategy that voters map to obtain information the newspaper is one of these means and form the electoral decision. However, little has been studied about the voter information behavior in elections in this sense little is known about the frequency of interest in political information. In addition, they influence the formation of public opinion through scheduling the media determine the agendas of public interest CERVI et al.
However, it is important to consider that even the media being a central tool for the practice of good representation it does not always perform this function. Anyway, there is a strong relationship of dependence between the professional politicians and the media, to the extent that the means of communication2 are the main sources of political information from where voters seek to guide their position CERVI, It must be considered in this sense that in complex societies, the public sphere consists mainly of the placement promoted by the means of communication.
At this point there is evidence that suggests that during election periods, newspapers tend to give greater intelligibility to topics related to electoral dispute CERVI et al. In democratic regimes, democracy tends to provide a legal framework to ensure some level of freedom of speech, but that without offering protection to journalistic services that are in most cases financed by the private sector JOSEPHI, Dahl suggests that at least eight guarantees must be met in order to preserve these three conditions, in particular two guarantees keep strong relationship with the media: In this regard, in order to fulfill the two guarantees mentioned here, the media are the key instruments, so the more diverse and free the press is, the more chances there are to consolidate polyarchy.
Political scientist Giovanni Sartori mentions Karl Deutsch3 in taxonomy on the dissemination and formation of electoral opinion. In his model called Waterfall, the formation of opinion can occur in three ways: In the first case, the opinions emerge from the will of economic and social elites, permeate the governmental and party elites, are replicated by the mass media, reach opinion leaders and finally the mass. Political Community and the North Atlantic Area, In the second case, there is a balance to this process traced through the masses, where the opinion of these can generate a tide of opinions, which in turn hit by the mass media and with less impact the government and party elites and economic and social elites.
Finally, the third case, which may or may not be a counterweight to the dissemination of opinions from the elites, is the identification with reference groups, where the formation of opinion occurs mainly through contact with others. These individuals at the base become starters and disseminators of knowledge, going against the concept of communicative democracy, where the mutual exchange of information generates new processes of forming opinions in contemporary democracies.
However, although there is the possibility of reversing the processes of influence, the minority interests have hardly met their demands representation, that is, minorities tend to remain marginalized, and this is clearly true in the scenario of contemporary democracies where there are a growing number of groups that demand for representation, but they are not met. In this regard, it seems valid to quote from Bobbio: Anyway, as Sartorip.
However, this is not an inexorable process, as he points out there are other ways that can be a counterpoint. Applying the model reviewed by Sartori to Brazil, we can say that the first way may be more efficient than it is in other more developed countries. This happens because, as Pochmann points out, in Brazil there is a higher income concentration. Thus, fewer actors are influencing government and party elites and media more efficiently. In any case, the model of Sartori and Deutsch does not provide help to answer how strongly voters seek political information.
But it makes it clear that the quality of information may be compromised due to the inference of economic and political elites on the news production process. It can be defined that within the communication and political studies there are three thematic axes more or less identifiable, they are: Our study belongs to the first thematic axis, and in this regard we seek to verify the voter concern of being informed during the election period.
We believe that an epiphenomenon of this concern may be the clear interest in newspapers. Our data include the period from to To delineate that, we used the Google Trends Beta frequency for the topics election and newspaper. The Google tool also allows the user to compare the volume of searches between two or more terms.
Some news connected to the terms searched are related to the chart, with possible reasons for an increase or decrease in volume of searches. Google Trends provides time series on query volumes entered into the Google search engine in a particular geographic region. The total volume of queries for a specific term in a particular geographic region is divided by the total number of queries of this region during the period being examined The maximum value for each search term is and the lowest value is zero GOEL et al.
That is, it does not seek a term, but an average of a series of searched terms that correlates with the topic. That makes this frequency a strong meter of general trends. We look for correlations between the two frequencies in order to assess whether there is any correlation between the electoral interest and the clear interest on Google in newspapers. This pattern of behavior is apparently quite practical, so the voter does not seek election information in non-election periods, instead of that he focus on it only during the election period.
As the frequency of interest in newspapers, it appears that from to there was a decrease in the quantity of searches. Perhaps this suggests that the voter is seeking information from other sources, for instance, within the channels of social networks. This may indicate a type of electoral sophistication, whereas several studies show that the newspapers during the election period provide low quality information QUADROS et al.
Frequency separated by interest in election and newspaper Source: Table 1 shows that the interest in newspapers 38, is on average much higher than the interest in elections 2, The results on Table 1 show that there is a very strong positive correlation between the electoral interest and the interest in newspapers, which means that the elevation of the electoral interest elevates, so to speak, the interest in newspapers.
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sarttori Not to say that everyone who seeks newspapers is seeking political information however, rfvisitada high correlation between newspapers and elections shows that during the election period, of greater interest in elections, individuals are more interested in newspapers. In this sense, it is suggested that part of this increase of interest in newspapers is part of a strategy of voters to gain political information to form the electoral decision.
Dispersion between interest in newspapers and electoral interest Source: Difference between the frequencies of interest in elections and newspapers Source: In a scenario where the means of communication are the mains way in which individuals are informed to decide their vote.
In our study we tried to identify whether there is correlation between the evident interest in elections and interest in newspapers. We suggest that this behavior is strategic and practical, and therefore the voter searches newspapers for information to form their electoral decision. So we believe that is valid to expand the effort within the political science and other social sciences to search demmocracia newspapers and their relationship with the political process, after all, at least in electoral periods, the fact is that popular interest in this source of information increases.
However, as it is evident in Charts 1 and 2, the interest in newspapers is decreasing year after year. In this sense, perhaps this fall shows that the voter is informed by other means, such as new media like social networks. More studies are needed to confirm this trend.
In any case it is possible to say that the results point to some level of sophistication of the Brazilian electorate after all ssrtori are indications that it seeks elements to form its decision, even in scenarios where newspapers can have their quality compromised because of the economic dynamics involving the production and dissemination of information.
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