Under the order of the Emperor from to , Jomini is called “Le Devin ( seer) de Napoléon”. Since , he is named aide-de-camp of Tsar Alexandre 1st. Antoine-Henri Jomini was the most celebrated writer on the Napoleonic art of war . Jomini was present at most of the most important battles of the Napoleonic. Books by baron de Antoine Henri Jomini. Showing 6 Results Books: Advanced Special Edition. Jun 26, by Antoine Henri De Jomini and G. H. Mendell.
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Baron Antoine Henri Jomini drew on his experience in the armies of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte to write the first systematic study of military strategy. Baron Antoine Henri Jomini rose in the ranks of the Swiss army, eventually serving under Marshall Michel Ney as chief of staff and becoming a baron in Jomini’s work remained influential with military leaders throughout the s, most notably during the U.
Jomini was born abtoine-henri March 6,in the town of Payerne, located in the Jomin canton of Vaud.
His parents, of Italian descent, were of modest means and gave their son a good education. As a child he was fascinated by soldiers and the art of war and was eager jonini attend the Prince de Wurtemberg’s military academy in Montbelliard, but his family’s circumstances did not permit this. Unable to afford a commission in the Swiss Watteville regiment then under the command of the French, at age 14 he was sent to business school in Aarau with the intent that he train for a career.
Antoine-Henri Jomini – Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
In April of he moved to Basle where he found a clerical position at the banking house of Monsieurs Preiswerk. Moving to Paris inJomini worked as a bank clerk for Monsieurs Mosselmann before leaving to become a stockbroker in partnership with another young man.
Napoleon’s successes in Italy at Lodi, Castiglione, and Lonato inspired Jomini to begin to write on military matters, and he began to study comparative warfare in earnest. His first published study of military operations were that of Frederick II.
In he left his business career behind to reenlist in the Swiss army where he was appointed aide-de-camp to the minister of war of the Helvetic Republic. In Jomini was appointed bureau chief within the Swiss war office, and in the following months, now with the rank of major, he reorganized the ministry for the Swiss War.
He drew on his growing knowledge of military operations to standardize several procedures, taking advantage of his position to experiment with organizational systems and strategies. In this work, antoine-hebri in eight volumes between and and translated as Treatise on Grand Military Operations, Jomini presented an overview of the general principles of warfare.
He included a critical history of the military actions of Frederick II, “the Great,” during the Seven Years’ War, contrasting them unfavorably with the battles waged by Napoleon Bonaparte. Not surprisingly, this work caught antoine-hfnri attention antoine-henrri the French emperor, who eventually offered Jomini a position within his own ranks. The grossly inept komini campaigns of the French Revolution had, in fact, inspired Jomini’s search for scientific principles underlying successful warfare, but he waited to publish his Histoire critique until most of the antoine-hendi he criticized were dead.
In each of his writings he described actual battles and theorized why the actions taken either were successful or failed. A child of the Enlightenment, he sought to determine the laws of military strategy, inviolate scientific principles that could be followed to wage a successful war.
Such laws would, Jomini believed, provide continuity among the diverse forces at work within an army and thus make war controlled and of minimal duration. Finally his work came to the attention of Marshal Ney, who took Jomini into his staff in and provided the funds necessary for the young man to publish his book.
Jomini fought with the Sixth Corps against Austria at Ulm in and served as senior-aide-de-camp against the Prussian Army at Jena and Bautzen the following year.
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Following the peace of Tilsit, he was created Baron of the Empire on July 27,in recognition of his service. During Napoleon’s campaigns to take Spain inhe fought bravely and was made brigade general in When the French army retreated from Russia Jomini also handled his role commendably and was appointed brigadier general in Throughout his career in the army of Napoleon, Jomini exhibited complete confidence in his ability to discern “correct” and “incorrect” strategies in line with his theories.
Such confidence was interpreted as arrogance by many officers, including Antoine-henru and Marshal Berthier, who likely also resented the preferential treatment given to the younger man by Napoleon.
In August ofas the result of efforts by Berthier to discredit him and sabotage a well-earned promotion to major general following Ney’s victory at the battle of Bautzen, Qntoine-henri was forced from the French ranks. Angered and humiliated at his treatment, he traded allegiances, left France, and joined the Russian Army as lieutenant general and aide-de-camp to Alexander I.
Mihaly von ZICHY
Aiding in Russia in ending Napoleon’s efforts to conquer Eastern EuropeJomini was allowed to abstain from all military action that took place on French soil. Advancing to general-in-chief in the service of Russia inhe became the military tutor of the Tzarevich Nicholas. As one of his final duties in the Russian military, Jomini was put in charge of organizing the Russian staff college in Under Bonaparte, the French had revolutionized warfare by decentralizing command, using a predominately conscripted force and vesting both political and military power in a single leader.
Influenced by Alexander the GreatHannibal, and Caesar, Napoleon had little concern for individual victories or defeats, and even placed the conquest of land secondary; he focused on the overall goal of destroying his enemy through a massed concentration of force. The observation of Napoleon’s battle strategy strongly influenced Jomini’s theory and became the foundation of his greatest work, ‘s Precis de l’art de la guerre, translated in as The Art of War, which was written to provide military instruction for the Grand Duke of Russia, the future Nicholas I.
Jomini believed that after the age of Napoleon, war would no longer be considered the private affair of individual monarchs; instead it would be waged nation against nation. In his Precis he defined for the first time the three main categories of military activity—strategy, tactics, and logistics—and postulated his “Fundamental Principle of War.
Jomini’s “Fundamental Principle of War” involved four maxims: He also advocated use of the turning movement, through which an adversary was overcome by moving beyond its position and attacking from the rear, and believed that adversaries in retreat should continue to be pursued as a means of beating them psychologically.
He viewed leadership as a prime requirement for military success and appraised character as “above all other requisites in a commander in chief.
Jomini strongly advocated simplicity and praised the Napoleonic strategy of a quick victory gained by quickly massing troops, as well as the French general’s objective of capturing capital cities as a signal of defeat. He also provided early definitions for modern concepts such as the “theater of operation.
Jomini’s writings, which constitute over 25 translated works, continued to influence military leaders in both Europe and North America for much of the nineteenth century. His systematization of Napoleon’s modus operandi became accepted military doctrine during the U.
Civil War and was used by generals at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. However, more recent scholars have viewed Jomini as a chronicler of pre-modern warfare.
As a military strategist, he was often compared with Prussian contemporary Karl Marie von Angoine-henriwhose treatise Vom Kriege was considered by many scholars to be romanticized. Unlike Clausewitz, Jomini was vague and contradicted himself on the importance of genius. Like Clausewitz, however, his focus remained on the Napoleonic “great battle” rather than the more modern war antoien-henri of multiple armed encounters.
Among Jomini’s other writings was a well-received Life of Napoleon and a political and military history of Napoleon’s Waterloo campaign.
After publishing his Precis, Jomini retired from the Russian military. He moved to Brussels, but continued to be sought out natoine-henri his expertise. Until he was considered by the English to be preeminent among military strategists, and his books were required reading in military academies.
McClellan and Antoine-hengi E. Lee were said to have gone into battle armed with a sword in one hand and Jomini’s Summary of the Art of War in the other. Reported to be of sound mind as late as his nineties, Jomini continued to insist that his principles would endure despite the changing face of modern warfare as a result of the development of technological advances such as railways and telegraphs.
He died on March 24,antoine-henr his home in Passy, France. Craighill, Lippincott,reprinted, Greenwood Press, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Retrieved December 31, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.
A Swiss citizen in Napoleon’s service, Jomini wrote profusely while becoming a general officer and chief of staff to Marshal Michel Ney and then had a long career in the Russian Army. In his histories of the campaigns of Frederick the Great, the French Revolutionand Napoleon, Jomini expounded what he saw as the essence of the offensive strategy of Napoleonic warfare.
Antoin-henri victories at Maren go, Anntoine-henriand Jena illustrated this turning movement. Beginning in the s, some American military historians incorrectly attributed to Uomini an immense influence on the generals of the U. Civil Warwho were, of course, influenced by Napoleon.
He organized the militia of the Helvetic Republic and after served as staff officer in the French army. He rose to high rank in Russia, becoming a celebrated authority on strategy.
Henri, baron de Jomini | French general and historian |
Jomini emphasized the capture of major points and the importance of superior numbers and lines of operation, and he advocated the employment of speed and maneuver rather than battle whenever possible. Home People History Swiss History: Biographies Antoine Henri Jomini. Print this article Print all entries for this topic Cite this article.
Antoine Henri Jomini Baron Antoine Henri Jomini drew on his experience in the armies of French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte to write the first systematic study of military strategy.
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