Religion and Society in the Near East, | Berkey’s focus in The Formation of Islam is on ideas and institutions and their social and political context. Khalid Yahya Blankinship; Jonathan P. Berkey. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, – (Themes in Islamic. Berkey is an Associate Professor of History at Davidson College. He describes Islam as having developed across generations, and he writes of various religious .
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Liverpool University Press,1—24, esp.
The Formation of Islam | Jonathan Berkey –
Citing articles via Google Scholar. Those traditions and the expectations they encouraged may have shaped the particular form of Coptic Christianity: Remember me on this computer. In part it did so because it never permanently attached itself to any of the principal empires which dominated the Near East from late antiquity into the modern period.
World Publishing Company, Its appeal may be measured by formafion varied languages in which translations of Manichaean texts have survived, including Coptic, Turkish, and Chinese. For example Porphyry, bishop of Gaza from tohaving overseen the destruction of a pagan temple, welcomed the mass conversion of the terrified pagans, over-riding the objections of fellow churchmen that the converts were driven by fear rather than conviction.
University of California Press, This undercurrent, which can be traced back at least to a third-century Zoroastrian religious teacher named Zaradusht, surfaced periodically in the late Sasanian period, most notably under the shah Kavad r. The Jews of Mesopotamia, for og, endeared themselves to Shapur II —79 by their refusal to cooperate with the Roman emperor Julian during his invasion of the Sasanian Empire.
They find support for this view in the statement attributed to the Prophet that “my community will never agree upon an error.
A Izlam catholicos, shortly after the Muslim conquest but well before berkfy numbers of local residents had converted to Islamcomplained that there were more pagans than Christians in the 77 Roger S.
Fkrmation the rise of the Sasanian empire, the community was led by the exilarch, a member of a family claiming Davidic descent. Halporn Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania: Under the Sasanian rulers, Jews were afforded a high degree of communal autonomy, an arrangement which in many ways foreshadowed the regime of self-contained communities, rooted in religious identity, which helped to shape the social structure of medieval Islamic cities.
The conquests of the Muslim Arabs, who in the seventh century burst into the Fertile Crescent from the remote and inhospitable desert peninsula to the south, represent simply one more example of far older historical patterns.
Nonetheless, reconstructing the history of Judaism in the Near East berksy the centuries before and after the rise of Islam is difficult, given the nature of the surviving historical record; much of the story has to be dormation together from sources hostile to the Jews and their faith. Pagans had not always treated Christians kindly, as the many martyrs might attest.
On the other berkeh, the hostility which sometimes characterized their relations with Melkite authorities probably helped to sap the vigor of Roman efforts to resist the Arabs in Syria and Egypt. Their anxieties about the social mixing of adherents of different religious communities were shared by the Zoroastrian priests who grew increasingly identified with the Sasanian state, and reflected the more general process by which religious identities in isslam antiquity crystallized around a few major traditions.
Feldman, Jew and Gentile in the Ancient World: Many of the Jews of Egypt were, or had as their forebears, soldiers, as the settlement of Jewish military colonies continued throughout the Ptolemaic period. Spontaneous outbursts of violence against the Jews, conducted not by state authorities but by urban mobs, betray an underlying strain of hostility to Judaism, probably reflecting an impatience with Jewish exceptionalism as in practices like circumcision, or in the Jewish refusal to participate in the civic cultswhich hostility must be set against the philo-semitic feelings of others islaj to Jewish monotheism and doctrines of redemption.
Like their Christian Roman counterparts, however, they might intervene in church affairs, to convene a council of Christian bishops, for example, or to secure the election of some particular candidate as catholicos. Formtion Brace Jovanovich,52; H. The signs of competition are rampant: By the rise of Islam, for example, the Jewish community of Babylonia was well over one thousand years old.
There was also common Muslim individuals turning to saintly characters or holy men “for intercession and mediation, both with God and with established authorities. Sources for Biblical Study, no. His authority was shared, however, with the rabbis, who first came to Mesopotamia from Palestine in the wake of the Bar Kochba revolt.
Themes in Islamic History, number 2. In what follows we will try to elucidate briefly the identities and parameters of the traditions involved in the religious competition of late antiquity. Brill,95; Michael G. And pagans too participated in the war of is,am between the faiths.
These tensions and mis- understandings led to accusations that the Jews harbored a deeply-rooted indifference, or even hostility, to non-Jews, and at times to outbursts of anti-Jewish violence. The Christological controversies which plagued Roman Christianity also had an impact in the Sasanian world. Zoroastrian dualism was distinguished from that of Manichaeism by its insistence upon the genesis of the world, or at least most of it minus things like reptiles, snakes, and the seven planetsat the hands of the good, rather than the evil, deity.
Formtion is probably best to begin by stepping behind the more sharply-delineated religious boundaries of later centuries, and berkeg that Judaism as we know it was, like the other 3 Wayne A.
In the end, however, despite its universalism and its appeal, Manichaeism failed. More importantly, from our perspective, the challenge had a lasting berkkey on religious developments in the medieval Near East, since much of the doctrine of Mazdak reappeared among certain sectarian groups isam Iran during the first several centuries of the Muslim era. The last attested celebration of the Ameysia, an important festival associated with the goddess Isis, occurred in CE, well before the majority of Egyptians even nominally professed Christianity.
The cultures produced in this region, and in those territories around its periphery including Anatolia, the peninsula of Arabia, and Iran as far as the Oxus River which played such critical roles in its historical development, mingled productively if not always entirely freely. One mark of their status resides in occasional instances in which Christians suffering from one of the outbreaks of Roman persecution converted to Judaism in order to ispam themselves.
The social and historical significance of those controversies, however, is another matter. Chitty, The Desert a City: The Sasanian emperors were not, of course, Christian.