Itinerarium Mentis in Deum (Works of St. Bonaventure Volume II) [Philotheus Boehner. OFM, Zachary Hayes. OFM, OFM, Philotheus Boehner, Zachary Hayes] on. Revered by his order, Bonaventure recodified its constitutions (), wrote for Alternative Titles: “Itinerarium mentis in Deum”, “The Soul’s Journey into God”. The Franciscan Vision: Translation of St. Bonaventure’s Itinerarium Mentis in Deum Para Uma Leitura Do Itinerarium Mentis in Deum de S. Boaventura.
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Bonaventure of Bagnoregio ca. During his lifetime he rose to become one of the most prominent men in Latin Christianity. His academic career as a theologian was cut short when in he was put in charge of the Order of Friars Minor O. He steered the Franciscans on a moderate and intellectual course that made them the most prominent order in the Catholic Church until the coming of the Jesuits.
His theology was marked by an attempt completely to integrate faith and reason. A master of the memorable phrase, Bonaventure held that philosophy opens the mind to at least three different routes humans can take on their journey to God. Non-intellectual material creatures he conceived as shadows and vestiges literally, footprints of God, understood as the ultimate cause of a world philosophical reason can prove was created at a first moment in time.
Intellectual creatures he conceived of as images and likenesses of God, the workings of the human mind and will leading us to God understood as illuminator of knowledge and donor of grace and virtue. The final route to God is the route of being, in which Bonaventure brought Anselm’s argument together with Aristotelian and Neoplatonic metaphysics to view God as the absolutely perfect being whose essence entails its existence, an absolutely simple being that causes all other, composite beings to exist.
These three routes are outlined in Sections 3, 4, and 5 below. On 2 FebruaryBr. Bonaventure was appointed Minister General in charge of the Franciscan Order. He is thought to have been forty years old at the time—the minimum age for a Minister General—giving him a birth date of Bonaventure was born Giovanni di Fidanza in Bagnoregio in Tuscany. He himself attests that he was healed miraculously as a child by the intervention of Francis of Assisi, shortly after the saint’s death on 3 October [ 2 ]: The Arts curriculum at Paris then consisted of the seven liberal arts, supplemented by some works of Aristotle.
Heavily weighted in favor of the trivium—the linguistic arts of grammar, rhetoric, and logic—teaching in the quadrivium—the four mathematical and scientific disciplines—was somewhat limited, partially due to the prohibition of Aristotle’s works in natural philosophy at Paris in Though some Masters of Arts, such as Roger Bacon and Richard Rufus, were teaching the Aristotelian natural philosophy, the requirements for becoming a Master of Arts as late as listed only the old logic, new logic, and the On the Soul De anima among Aristotle’s works; the earliest record of Aristotle’s entire natural philosophy and metaphysics as required for graduation only appears in[ 3 ] two years before Bonaventure left the University.
His writing reflects this education; a master of logic and rhetoric, he was less deeply read in the Aristotelian and Islamic philosophical texts than his Dominican contemporaries, Albert and Thomas.
About the time young Giovanni began to study Arts, Alexander of Hales, Master of Theology bonaventire initiator of the practice of commenting on the Sentences of Peter Lombard, took the Franciscan habit. His conversion gave the Franciscans a Chair in Theology, the Dominicans having acquired two Chairs during the university strike of — Bonaventure attended lectures bonaaventure disputations in theology from to Writing aboutthe Franciscan chronicler Salimbene said: Bonaventure of Bagnoregio to read at Paris, which he had never yet done because he was not yet installed in a Chair.
He then read the whole Gospel of St. Luke, a commentary that is very beautiful and complete. This was in Once Master, he revised gonaventure Commentary Commentaria in Quatuor Libros Sententiarumhis major philosophical and theological work.
In the Masters and students of the University of Paris went on strike, all but the friars. The two Dominicans and William of Meliton, O. He assumed the Franciscan Chair in theology immediately, but taught only at the Franciscan convent, unrecognized by the University.
Bonaventure boanventure all three tasks of a Master of Theology from — He revised his commentary on Luke and composed commentaries on John and Ecclesiastes.
Journey of the Mind to God
He also held three sets of disputed questions. The questions On the Knowledge of Christ De scientia Christiwhich develop his illumination theory of knowledge, probably came out of his inception as Master in The questions On the Mystery of the Trinity De mysterio Trinitatiswhich elaborated his view of God, were likely the last ones he wrote Hayes40—44;24— Both were composed in a lofty style that gives no evidence of the conflict embroiling Paris at the time.
The third set of disputed questions, however, were On Evangelical Perfection De perfectione evangelica and consisted in a defense of the friars’ way of life, under attack by non-mendicant Masters led by William of St.
But six months earlier Bonaventure had been appointed Minister General. From this point on, Bonaventure’s writing reflected the needs of the Order, but he did not cast aside his philosophical mind. The Minister General followed with three tracts written in —60 for the spiritual edification of the friars: Bonaventure’s most influential work over the centuries was composed at this time.
For Francis’s feast day in October,Bonaventure visited Mt. The journey follows the route first charted by St. Augustine—from the exterior world to the interior mind, and from the interior but inferior human mind to the superior mind, namely, to God.
Bonaventure allegorically understood the six wings of the angelic Seraph Francis saw to stand for six ways God can be approached and therefore arranged his Journey into seven chapters. The two highest wings of the Seraph symbolize seeing God in himself, first in the way reason sees God as having one divine nature c.
For each step, Bonaventure used material from earlier writings; but the Journeylike all his later works, is only a sketch the Minister General knew he would never have the leisure to complete.
The result is his writing achieves a combination of scriptural imagery, philosophic depth, mystical yearning, and density more meditative than demonstrative. But the Journey does provide an appropriate outline for looking at Bonaventure’s philosophy. After considering his views on the relation of philosophy, faith, and theology Section 2we shall look respectively at Bonaventure’s views on physical creation Section 3human nature itinerrium cognition Section 4and on God Section 5.
Franciswhich he did in For most of the period from through Bonaventure trekked through France and Italy by foot, as did all friars when they traveled. In he returned to Paris, where his friars were under attack both from conservatives in the Theology faculty and from radicals in Arts. Bonaventure began a series of writings devoted primarily to moral matters: Collations on the Ten Commandments Collationes de decem praeceptisLent of ; Collations on the Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit Collationes de septem donis Spiritus sanctiLent of ; a defense of the friars itinerariu the Socratic title Apologia pauperum Defense of the Mendicants On 10 DecemberEtienne Tempier, bishop of Paris, condemned certain erroneous Aristotelian propositions.
During Easter-tide of Bonaventure delivered his magisterial Collations on the Hexameron Collationes in Hexaemeron. The last period of Bonaventure’s life saw him rise to become one of the most prominent men in Christendom. During the three year Papal bonavehture, from 29 November mentos 1 SeptemberBonaventure preached an important sermon in Viterbo and was probably instrumental in the invention of conclave.
He is said to have been offered the papacy by the electors and to have suggested Teobaldi Visconti instead. Bonaventure of itinerarkum memory, Bishop of Albano, who was itinegarium man eminent for his knowledge and eloquence homo eminentis scientie et eloquentiea man outstanding for his sanctity and acknowledged for the excellence of his life, both religious and moral…Br.
Without exception, every word of philosophy Bonaventure ever wrote is contained in works explicitly religious—in sermons, works of spiritual direction, and theology.
He never wrote the kind of introductions to the principles of metaphysics and natural philosophy that Thomas Aquinas composed in his On Being and Essence De ente et essentia and On the Principles of Nature De principiis naturaenor did he comment on Aristotle’s works. Commentators writing during the twentieth century neo-thomistic revival compared Bonaventure with three other thinkers: Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas. Mandonnet thought he had no philosophy of his own, but was an Augustinian theologian, pure and simple, all of whose conclusions depend on faith.
Saint Bonaventure (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Gilson thought Bonaventure developed an Augustinian philosophy within his theology: Bonaventure the mystical synthesis of mediaeval Augustinianism was fully formed, just as that of Christian Aristotelianism was fully formed with St. Van Steenberghen thought his philosophy a failed Aristotelianism separate from but at the service of his Augustinian theology.
Bonaventure’s approach to Aristotle was quite different from Albert and Thomas. He felt no need for detailed knowledge of the text of Aristotle. As a student in Arts he had learned from his Masters, not from detailed study of Aristotle’s text, broadly Aristotelian philosophical principles—the categories and transcendentals, the causes and predicables, and fundamental notions like potency and act, possible and necessary—sufficient to do his own work.
As a philosopher and theologian, he was perfectly capable of using such borrowed principles to draw his own conclusions, ones which he himself said depended more on Alexander of Hales than on any ittinerarium On the other hand, while Augustine was clearly Bonaventure’s favorite theological authority, he was not, properly speaking, an Augustinian. Even when he draws Augustinian conclusions, Bonaventure does not employ Augustinian arguments.
In truth, Bonaventure was, broadly speaking, an Aristotelian in his philosophical principles, but not in his conclusions.
A better way to describe his philosophical conclusions and his way of drawing them is that his thought was Franciscan in inspiration and Bonaventurean in bonaveture. The pressing issue concerning philosophy, faith, demu theology in the s was how to set up theology as an Aristotelian demonstrative science. Albert had done so in his commentary on the Sentences —9which Bonaventure had on hand when itienrarium his own commentary.
Demonstration is causal knowledge, and a science in Aristotle’s sense is systematic knowledge of one limited itinerariun developed through demonstrating necessary conclusions by making use of certain fundamental causal principles relevant to itlnerarium subject at hand.
The task theology had set itself, then, was to discover and present systematically the truths set out in that most unsystematic of books—the Bible. These causes in turn clarify the relations between philosophy, faith, and theology. Since science exists as an intellectual habit in the mind of the knower, the efficient cause of any book of theology is the author who wrote it, Peter Lombard in the case of his SentencesBonaventure himself in the case of his commentary.
This simple point distinguishes faith, whose sole efficient cause is God working through grace, from both philosophy and theology, whose efficient cause is the human mind, though even here God has a role to play.
When he came to clarify the end mmentis theology, Bonaventure understood that Aristotle had sharply distinguished practical science—whose end is deeds—from theoretical science—whose deym is knowledge. Determining that material cause of theology is itinerraium same as settling on its subject.
On this point, there had been considerable dispute among the Masters. Theology, by contrast, cuts across all genera and includes God, who is not confined within any genus. Bonaventure was familiar with many accounts of the subject of theology: To throw light on these conflicting answers, Bonaventure turned to his study of the Arts. Priscian had noted three different senses of the subject of grammar.
Bonaventure does not explicitly address the principles of theology. Deuk, Bonaventure adds a telling qualification to his description of the subject of theology. If so, then theology must have the kinds of principles that make possible both kinds of arguments: What makes all such basic truths theological is their argumentative function. Theological arguments may draw from revelation by using revealed truths as premises and they may draw from reason by using rational truths as premises.
Both kinds of arguments are theological because of the use to which they are put. In this way, philosophical reasoning has an integral place within the domain of Bonaventurean theology.