Eseje polityczne federalistów. – Kraków ; Warszawa, Federalist Papers. Reader. French overseas empire. German and French rule in the Cameroon. się na poważnie myślą polityczną ojca Konstytucji USA, Jamesa Madisona, który rządy nie byłyby potrzebne – pisał w sławnych esejach Federalist Papers. Sześć ksiąg o państwie; T. Hobbes, Lewiatan; J. Locke, Drugi traktat o rządzie; Monteskiusz, O duchu praw;Federalista, Eseje polityczne; E. Burke, The Works;.
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Alvydas Jokubaitis Vilnius University Prof. John Robertson Cambridge University Prof. Grandiose declarations are an embar- pllityczne confirmation of federaljstw fact. The article presents the view that the Jagiellonian Idea does not rest on facts, but on an imagined picture of the one-time Rzeczpospolita. The failure of that project is ascribed to the changed circumstances, and seeje to the insufficient energy elicited by this dialogic vortex.
The idea as grasped by publicists, and particu- larly as present in discussions on social forums, is not taken seriously. Historians do not find this idea useful, and politicians do not make much federa,istw history. The Jagiellonian idea would have to be an instrument of current politics, and yet histo- rians are neither summoned to that end, nor does anyone await their opinions. There- fore, can we reflect — or: Meanwhile, the weakening of national bonds hinders defining our identity.
Do we defend our identity, or do we go on searching for it? This diagnosis of course needs substantiation, for which there is not enough space here. And they were something natural. They were significant and indicated the endurance of Polishness. The disappearance of quarrels over Poland proves the weakening of bonds. Kieniewicz, Ekspansja, kolonializm, cywilizacja [Expansion, Colonialism, Civilization], Warszawapp.
Polska [Quo vadis, Polonia? Poland ], Warszawapp.
Studia z dziejów anarchizmu 2. (English summaries) | Radoslaw Skrycki –
Nor is there any evident project which would unite Poles above all the many apparent divisions. Contrary to appearances, this does not serve our national bond. At the same time we face difficulty in concluding the transformations which were supposed to lead us out from peripheral status.
Federalisfw the Jagiellonian idea in these circumstances prove useful? That is, is it capable of strengthening bonds, and can it prompt metamorphosis?
The matter concerns our federalustw future, after all. The project can, of course, take the form of an idea. Political sloganeering and chanting during demonstrations are utterly ineffective here. Berend, Central and Eastern Europe Detour from the Periphery to the Periphe- ry, Cambridge An analysis of causes], in D. Conditions, concepts, implementation], Lublin—Warszawa There- fore we have to keep in mind the symbiosis between the community and feferalistw project.
We can put things this way: This is how they became Citizens. And what are the representatives and leaders doing?
The chosen representatives of the Nation fulfil their constitutional responsibilities, also as the au- thors of political programs. However, the leaders of the Nation arise from those Citi- zens who take the lead in pursuing the future. Nobility came from birth, citizenship resulted from accepting laws and obligations. And when it went missing, degradation took place. As federalustw know, it arose in response to the collapse of the Rzeczpospolita and to the chal- lenges related to dseje evolution of great ideologies in the 19th century.
Nostalgies, endurance, hopes, values], Londyn But even if we have already entered the post-national era, federal and union ideas remain an anachronism. The peripheral situation of Poland, nursing the complex of being rebuffed by Europe, was considered obvious.
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Moreover, during the time when modern Europe was forming, the division between esejee West and the East as separate formations did not exist.
However, if we find this impossible, let us at least cut ourselves free from our complexes. Nowak, Pierwsza zdrada Zachodu. The orientation of settle- ment, communication, the transfer of goods and ideas was shaped territorially, by the course of moun- tain ranges and river valleys, and maritime passages.
The ethnic, cultural, and religious frontier lands of the Rzeczpospolita ca. One group of people thinks that the Jagiellonian Rzeczpospolita was only an imperfect copy of Europe, whereas others would wish to see it as an unequalled model of democracy and fedderalistw. Might refers to the state; the place in Europe concerns people.
In this sense we can say that choosing civilizational affiliation was identical with defining nationality. And here is where the feuding occurs. Naturally, this dispute is real, but the attempts at seeking the way in which Polish affairs really looked in the 16th century 23 D. This can hardly be agreed to. Besides, this dispute may well have ceased to interest anyone. The Common Wealth — that is, the matter shared by all citizens of the nobility — never was and still is nothing obvious. In the times of the deepest collapse after the January Uprising ofproclaiming aloft the pre-partitioned Poland, above all the fsderalistw current policies of imperialisms and national egotisms, was understandable.
That is how it was, really was: Mightily held down from the west Bohemia and Hungary and the east Lithuania and the Tatarsit found an outlet for its aspirations in the north and the south. Several generations after were taught that the eastern expansion cost us the loss of any chance to re- trieve Silesia and Pomerania.
But the fact is that Polish expansion went southwards!
The beginning of our case precedes the Jagiellonians, and reaches the times of the great turning-point initiated by the Mongolian expansion. From the history of language to the history of culture], in B. The axis of the Dniester and Vistula rivers attracted people and freed their initiative to set up villages and cities.
Yet choices in politics can be different and not always successful. This geopolitical orientation and its related military and economic practices were never named. However, they became the basis of later concepts named after that dy- nasty.
This was similar as in the case of the Rhein valley axis which connected Italy to the Flanders, and Naples to Antwerp. It federalist rarely called Carolinian, but it is mostly re- membered because of the French-German conflict that lasted centuries. It gave birth to Europe, however its significance was revealed not until Fernand Braudel came along. Po,ityczne Genoese were esrje first to notice that attractive eastern goods follow from the Silk Road northwards, from Trabzon to Caffa.
Abu-Lughod, Before European Hegemony. The World System A. Strzelecki, Warszawach. The Genoese colony on the Crimea], Warszawa The oldest route led to Kiev and Novgorod; in the early Middle Ages Ruthenia or- ganized itself around it. In the modern era it became an object of Lithuanian-Muscovy confrontation.
In the meantime it experienced the Mongolian invasion, and then came the Black Death Plague of the 14th century, which completely changed the situation along the western border of the steppe. Here the Teutonic Order created their modern state by exploit- ing, but also organizing settlement. The Hanseatic League of cities was more and more active here. Finally, at the same time the development of village and city settlements grew, which was related to the migrations heading exactly in the direction indicated by the above axis.
This was not only Polish settlement, but also Vlach. Lastly, this area was not afflicted by the plagues of the midth century in any degree comparable to the west and central part of the continent.
None of this happened by coincidence. Somewhere here, from Pomorze to Muntenia, another European vortex began to politycxne in the 14th century. The causes of this diverseness are the bones of con- tention in which what is preponderant is the urge to prove the coherence and compat- ibility of the Polish model with the completely imagined Western model. For me what is essential is rather the original causes behind the creation of solutions rooted in rseje same Christian tradition, yet open to new currents.
We may also say that out of this vortex came the concepts: This is what enabled the heliocentric doctrine and the Warsaw Confederation. But we need to underline that found inside this civilizational variant was both the public activity of ex- ecutioners and the model for the decent man. These dialogics of the European vortex allowed Poles and Lithuanians to build within one hundred years everything that, in subsequent generations, com- prised the Rzeczpospolita.
Barbara Czarska (-Translator of Eseje polityczne federalistów)
Similarly as things took eseue in the western part of the continent, people drawn into exuberant economic and demo- graphical processes showed their willingness and ability to confront their identity cul- ture, religion, languages. They sought and found politjczne the Kingdom the opportunities to satisfy their needs and ambitions, and at the same time they were ready to take and use everything they came across according to their own need.
This was possible because of freedom.
It would not have succeeded without energy. The old and natural bond with Greek Christianity, the Byzantine world, had crucial meaning in this dialogue.