handboek over metalen ramen wees J. Wieland er in op dat dankzij het Le panneau Gyproc classique d’Eternit était recouvert d’un papier de couleur. Gyproc, Fermacell, Renggli AG and for all the technical data we could  SBR (several authors), „Handboek houtskeletbouw‟, , SBR. handboek over metalen ramen wees J. Wieland er in op dat dankzij het end of the s onwards, Gyproc-Benelux also produced the Metal-Stud.
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Kok, MSc 88 gyprc. In case this report was handbboek on instructions, the rights and obligations of contracting parties are hwndboek to either the General Terms and Conditions for commissions to TNO, or the relevant agreement concluded between the contracting parties. Submitting the report for inspection to parties who have a direct interest is permitted TNO. The organization has nearly 1 million members.
With 41 funeral homes, 22 crematoria and 7 cemeteries Yarden has a national distribution and coverage. Yarden wants to take account of environmental constraints and preferences. In this context Yarden follows new developments and invests in them. Yarden plans to introduce two new funeral techniques: The Dutch law on funeral services provides in three destinations: To allow the two new funeral techniques an amendment to the law will be necessary.
Before a proposal to amend the law will be set up, the Ministry of Interior Affairs will need a report with a solid foundation for the legalization of the new techniques. As first step Yarden asked TNO to analyse the environmental impact eco-footprint of the 4 funeral techniques burial, cremation, cryomation and resomation through a Life Cycle Assessment LCA. For conducting the environmental study process data required for burial and cremation have been collected by Yarden itself.
For these techniques, the average situation in the Netherlands and current state of the technology has been assumed. For the two new techniques, the process data handblek provided by Cryomation Ltd. The new techniques have been considered as if these were already fully operational and integrated in the Dutch funeral sector.
Under this method, the impacts of emissions on 11 different environmental impact categories are calculated in equivalents for an important substance in that category impact unit. The environmental impact for a funeral type is determined using the computational software tool SimaPro version 7. The Ecoinvent database contains environmentally relevant information for various types of processes and materials.
The calculated results for each impact category has a different unit, so the differences between funeral types can in principle only be compared for each impact category separately. Comparing the LCA results for the different environmental impact categories leads to following conclusions for the four funeral options: For a more quantitative statement about the overall environmental impact of four types of funeral the shadow price method is used.
As the market environment is a virtual marketplace and the cost of the environment falls under the so-called external costs, the government must establish emission targets for the quality of the environment. The shadow price for a specific impact category is the amount of money society handbofk willing to pay for the reduction of these effect-causing emissions per unit of impact for most impact categories, this unit is one kg of equivalent emission eg.
Environmental impact of different funeral technologies
The advantage of using shadow prices is that different environmental impacts can be expressed as external costs. Addition of the shadow costs for all the different environmental effects of a polluting activity product or service over its lifetime gives the total environmental costs of the activity monetization of environmental impacts.
In this way the environmental impact of a specific activity can be reduced by implementing cost-effective emission reduction measures at other activities that have the same reduction of environmental impacts as caused by the specific activity. Using this monetization method, alternative processes can be compared based on their total environmental costs over the life of the activity and, if relevant, per year. This part of the study is outside the requirements of the ISO-standard, because weighting of impact categories is introduced.
The result of the calculations based on the shadow price method handboekk shown in figure S1 for the four funeral options. hajdboek
Environmental impact of funeral techniques Burial Cremation Cryomation Resomation Figure S1 – Shadow costs for the existing funeral techniques burial and cremation and the new funeral techniques cryomation and resomation The total impact expressed as shadow price for the four funeral techniques is between around 0 Euros per body gyroc resomation and approximately 85 Euros per body for burial.
Both other funeral options are in between: Land use is also the largest impact category for cremation 14 Euros. Second contributor is eutrophication gypfoc Euros and human toxicity 5 Euros.
For cryomation, land use 10 Euroseutrophication 4 Euros and global warming 2 Euros have a large contribution. The results for resomation are dominated by eutrophication 10 Euros and the large negative values for human toxicity -7 Euros and global warming – 1. Funeral options other than burial are largely determined by compensating effects from metal recycling, especially for cryomation and resomation. These funeral options offer better possibilities for recycling of valuable metallic remains, which would otherwise disappear with the remains, going into soil, water and air.
For cryomation and resomation also small amounts of bandboek metals can be separated from the remains and recycled leading to bonuses compensating part of the environmental impact. To get an indication of the un certainty of the results, sensitivity analyses have been carried out for the destination of the remains, composition of the waste water, use of utilities in the processes, type of cryomation burial monument, assumptions for metal recycling and the composition of the coffin.
Considering the results of gypdoc sensitivity analyses it can be concluded that the assumed variations in the processes do not change substantially the general conclusions according to the original impact calculations for the base scenario. It has become clear though that the coffin type is determining the extent of the difference in environmental impact between cremation on the one hand and the new techniques cryomation and resomation on the other.
Furthermore the shadow costs for resomation, which are around zero in the base scenario after adding up the positive and negative environmental aspects, are very sensitive for the data used regarding recycling and the amounts of resources used. The general conclusion on the environmental impact of the four funeral options is that the total environmental impact is hadboek for burial followed by cremation. The impact of cryomation and resomation is much lower than for burial and cremation.
The impact of resomation is probably lowest of all funeral options. With these results it should be realised that, independent of the applied technique, some funeral preparations take handvoek pre-phase which also contribute to the environmental impact.
Gypric include the preparation of the body including chilled expositionsending the funeral cards and invitations, and the farewell ceremony itself e.
Environmental impact of different funeral technologies – PDF
This pre-phase is not part of the study, but a preliminary calculation showed that the environmental impact of the pre-phase, expressed as shadow costs, is much larger than the four burial techniques themselves about Euro per pre-phase per body. From this study it is concluded that further development and application of the new funeral technologies cryomation and resomation can lead to a reduction of the environmental impact of funeral services in the Netherlands.
The environmental impact of energy use in these techniques is largely compensated by the benefits of recycling of scrap metals.
For the current techniques the average Dutch situation is assumed. To which extent the best practice is more environmentally friendly than. The ethical aspects of applying the various techniques are not considered in this study. Burial, cremation or making available to science. As a first step Yarden asked TNO to assess and analyse the environmental impact eco-footprint of the 4 funeral techniques burial, cremation, cryomation and resomation. Social and economic aspects have not been considered in this report.
In this report the results of the environmental assessment of the 4 funeral types are presented. Chapter 2 describes the exact goal and scope of this study. In chapter 3, the gyporc used for determination of the eco-footprint is elaborated. Chapter 4 deals with the activities during the life cycle of handblek funeral techniques.
Furthermore chapter 4 contains references to the data sources and discusses a number of key assumptions. In Chapter 5 the results of the calculations are presented, analysed and discussed. For comparison of the total environmental impact of the funeral techniques the shadow price method is used. In Chapter 6 the conclusions about the comparison of the gjproc impact of the 4 funeral techniques are given.
This report is primarily made for the commissioner, Yarden. Yarden is planning to use the handbooek of the comparison to investigate the opportunities to introduce two new funeral techniques in the Netherlands. Also, the commissioner wants to be able to use the report to support a proposal for law adjustment. Therefore the results of this research are presented in a form readable to both expert and layman. Before this report is made hnadboek, the Dutch version of this report 1 has been reviewed according to the ISO and standards [ISO, ] regarding the following: This review has been performed by: These data were yet available to the reviewers.
This is done by defining a so-called functional unit, which describes jandboek an unambiguous, quantitative way the function the techniques fulfill. The functional unit in this research is defined as the treatment of the mortal remains of one average deceased in the Netherlands.
The term average deceased implies that averages have been taken for all variables, and that extremes were excluded. Examples of variables are: The exact composition of the average is included in Appendix C. Product system Distinction is made between the activities taking place from the moment of decease up to the ceremony preparation phase and the practice of one of the funeral techniques realization phase. Gyprpc research describes gyprpc realization phase. In the preparation phase the relatives of the deceased undertake a number of actions.
The most important being the preparation and cooled laying out of the deceased, the preparation of the farewell ceremony and the ceremony itself. Environmental effects that follow from these steps are related to, for example, the production of paper for the gyoroc cards and the emissions resulting from the transportation of the hanxboek and guests to the ceremony.
All of these activities have been excluded from the scope of the study. Conversely, the production of the 1 Keijzer, E. Milieueffecten van verschillende uitvaarttechnieken.
The materials and processes involved are necessary for the realization phase and can be different among the funeral techniques. The funeral techniques to be assessed are burial, cremation, cryomation and resomation.
Figure 1 shows an outline of the most relevant process steps in the chain of activities for the four techniques. Chapter 4 describes the details in a systematic way. Figure 1 System outline with process steps in the life cycle of the four funeral techniques In all cases the subject of study is the funeral of an average deceased person in the Netherlands. Furthermore the average current situation is taken as a starting point, meaning that exotic materials or processes such as coffins of special materials or extremely energy efficient cremation ovens were not considered.
System boundaries In the light of the goal to compare funeral techniques, the four systems are considered in a generic way. Studying the variations within one technique is not a goal by itself. Just the most common options within each funeral technique were included.
In short, this research considers the funeral process that the deceased undergoes, not the activities preceding that. Not included are for example laying out of the deceased cooledthe farewell ceremony and transportation of guests. Items that are included are all processes and materials that are directly related to the treatment of the deceased. For cremation those are e. In determining the environmental relevance of metals it is essential to discriminate between processes that take place in the life of the deceased and processes that are inextricably bound to the funeral.