Full text of “John Wilkes The Illyrians” 1 Arthur John Evans in (from Joan Evans, Time and Chance, London, Illyrian ship and legend GENTH (rev.). saRte Me Ul eetcvec John Wilkes The extracts on pp and from Appian’s Roman History, vols. 2 and 3, translated by Horace White, are reprinted by kind. Documents Similar To – John Wilkes – THE Origin of the Albanians. Uploaded by. Linas Kondratas. Vladimir Orel, Albanian Etymological.
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Illyrian deity wearing broad hat obv. Burton Burtonpi. Habic Srecko 29 Silvered bronze wikkes with scene of combat between warriors and horsemen, from Sclce e Poshtme, Albania, 3rd century bc: Ccrmanovic-Kuzmanovic c Portrait reliefs on family tombstones from near Glamoc, Bosnia, 2nd century ad Bojanovski a d Tombstone, with depictions of jewellery above and textile motifs belowwith Latin epitaph from near Sinj, Dalmatia Gabricevicpi.
Sites and Cultures 3 The Kingdom of the Illyrians 4 Roman Illyricum Preface The purpose of this hook is to present the current state of knowledge regarding peoples known to the Ancient World as Illyrians. During the past two decades a large amount of work has taken place on known prehistoric and historic sites in Albania and Yugoslavia, while many new finds have been reported.
Here annotation of the text and the accompanying bibliography are intended as a guide only to recent publications. In this respect I acknowledge my debt to the Illyrian biblio- graphies compiled by Alcksandar Stipcevic and his colleagues.
The Illyrians : John Wilkes :
Research on the origins and identity of Illyrians continues to be infected by the politics of today. That is no novelty for this region of Europe but in recent years much has been gained through the open debates in symposia organized by Alojz Benac of Sarajevo and in the Illyrian congresses in Albania.
Moreover, at a time when the political future of the Yugoslav and Albanian peoples seems so uncertain, it is right for the outsider to pay tribute to the scholarly integrity of many colleagues in these lands as they confront the myths and falsehoods relating to the remote past which are deployed in modern political contests. I jobn grateful to the Editors and to the Publishers for rheir invitation to contribute to this series, and no less for their patience and forbearance in the face of delay and procrasti- nation.
I am grateful also for the help and support of my London colleagues, Mark Hassall and Richard Recce, which allowed me to enjoy the hospitality of the British School at Athens and the use of its excellent library for two months early in Colleagues in Yugoslavia and Albania have responded Prefat e WW generously to my requests for illustrations. Sheppard Frere kindly read. My greatest debt, signalled in the dedication, is to my family, for their unfailing encouragement and support.
List of Abbreviations AAnt. Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hung. Acta Archaeologica Academiae ‘scientiarum Hung. Their territory comprised much of what is now occupied by the Yugoslavs, along with northern and central Albania.
They spoke a language of which almost no trace has survived. That it belonged to the ‘family’ of Indo-European languages has been deduced from the many names of Illyrian peoples and places preserved in Greek and Latin records, both literary and cpigraphic. We cannot be sure that any of them actually called themselves lllyrians: In general the lllyrians have tended thr be recognized from a negative standpoint, in that they were manifestly not Celts, Dacians or Thracians, or Greeks or Mace- donians, their neighbours on the north, east and south respectively.
Even though they have escaped the sort of lasting infamy attached 1 TrbuhovicStipcevic As ‘savages’ or “barbarians on th no Leriphcry ol. By Ac Treaty o on 14 October a large trac, ol land ea. I Slav national leclmg began to be translated into political manifestos more specific to the established order of Europe as constituted by the Con- gress of Vienna m IK Among the Slav subjects ol the Austro- Hungarian Empire of the Hapsburgs the Illynan name was invoked by a movement in Croatia, centred on its capita Agram, the Zagreb of today.
Though their argu- ments lacked dilkes support of scientific evidence currency as political slogans awakened the sense of an II y an heritage from the remote past. Moreover, it happened that ntl this period, in the middle decades of the nineteen h century, the foundations of the modern historical and archaeol- ogical traditions of Illyrian studies were being laid.
In Dalmatia historians and antiquaries of the Renaissance notably Marko Marulichad already begun to observe and record the abundant ancient remains. In Croatia and Dalmatia, an Austrian territory after the defeat of Napoleon, the collection and study of ancient remains began with the foundation of archaeological museums at Split in at Zadar in and in the Croatian capital Zagreb in The first detailed account of the johhn lllynans appeared in the Albanesische Studten of J.
In Zagreb the Croatian Archaeological Society was illyrans lished in Around this time also some ot the pioneers jjohn Illyrian studies in Croatia began long and industrious careers. In the Austrian port of Trieste the British consul Richard Burton contributed a study of ancient hill settlements gradina and other prehistoric remains in the Istrian peninsula see figure 25to be followed 30 years later by the major synthesis of Carlo Marchesetti.
By assigning to Aus- tria the troubled provinces of Bosnia and Hercegovina, the lot of the Slav population may not jojn been greatly improved but the heartlands of the ancient Illyrians were laid open to historical and archaeological exploration.
A vivid account of the archaeology of Austria’s new territories, interspersed with comments on the political questions of the time, is provided by the works of the young Arthur Evans, later famous for his excavations at Knossos, centre of the Minoan civilization of Bronze Age Crete.
In the late summer of the year old Evans see figure 1 made a journey across Bosnia jhn Hercegovina from Zagreb to Ragusa Dubrovnik on the Adri- atic. As he and his brother Lewis moved south, news reached them of uprisings by Christian peasants in Hercegovina and of the atrocities committed by the irregular troops sent to quell them. Though on a lesser scale than the Bulgarian atrocities of the ilyrians year, the sufferings of the South-Slav peasants described in Evans’ lurid and frankly sensationalized account produced an outburst of indignation in England.
It had been his ambition to discover wwilkes and exciting civilizations but his search for Illyrians soon became bound up with the cause of Slav freedom, a movement in which he now began to play a leading part. As a special correspondent of the Manchester Guardian based at Ragusa from he reported in unflattcr- 4 BurtonMarchesetti His intemperate assertions that the Emperor’s regime was no better than that of the Moslem l urk, and in some respects was worse, evoked little response in England.
In I SSI he published a sympathetic account of the activities of Slav dissidents in the nearby mountains and, after a spell in prison, he was deported from Austrian territory in April His ‘Antiquarian Rese- arches in Illyricum’, published in four parts by the Society of Antiquaries of London in its Archaeologiastill repay study for their wealth of information and observation of detail at first hand.
He described a society which had been largely cut off from the rest of Europe during nearly five centuries of Ottoman rule.
Illyrians – Wikipedia
His discursive and enthusiastic accounts of prehistoric and classical remains and the ancient customs of the contemporary Slavs were not composed in a scholarly seclusion but amid a career of political journalism and agi- tation. The achievements of Illyrians in the remote past were deployed in order to emphasize to his readers how dark and regressive had been the era of Turkish rule. Though castigated for its insensitive ways the Austrian regime in Bosnia and Hercegovina transformed the archaeological pic- ture of those areas from one of near total darkness after the centuries of Turkish rule into one of the best observed regions of Europe.
The advance began with the foundation of the provincial museum in Sarajevo Bosnisch-Hercegovinische Landcsmuseum. Several major programmes of excavation were soon tje way; the Neolithic settlement at Butmir near Sara- jevo; the great Bronze and Iron Age burial grounds on the Glasinac plateau in eastern Bosnia; in the west the Iron Age cemetery at Jezerine near Bihac in the Una valley and the pile- dwellings at Donja Dolina on the river Sava.
The results and finds were published in the museum Bulletin [Glasnik in Serb- ian, and in German in the volumes of Scientific Reports Wissensckaftliche Mitteilungen aus Bosnien void der ‘Wilkes In addition to the archaeological papers these volumes also included many pion- eering studies by anthropologists and ethnologists who seized the chance to work in this little known area of Europe.
Ilyrians of this work has been under- taken illydians specialists in the universities and in the national museums ot Belgrade, Zagreb, Skopje, Sarajevo and Ljubljana. In addition much important evidence that might have been lost through new building and other development has been rescued by the hard-pressed antiquities services of the Republics.
Several ol kohn long-established periodicals were reconstituted after the Second World War and continue to be published, including the Starinar of Belgrade, the Glasnik of the Sarajevo museum, and the Vjesnik of the Zagreb and Split museums. Some important new periodicals have issued from the new state academies for scientific research at Zagreb, Ljubljana the Slovenian journal Arheoloski Vestnik and more recently Sarajevo.
Here the nitre for Balkan Studies [Centar za balkanoloska ispitivanja ot the Academy of Sciences in Bosnia and Hercegovina, under the inspiration of Alojz Benac, has published an Annual [Godisnjaknumerous monographs and a massive synthesis of Yugoslav prehistory in tthe volumes now nearing completion Vraehistorija Jugoslavcnskih Zemalja. With the international community in mind, the Archaeological Society of Yugoslavia has since published Ardnwologica iugoslavica containing brief reports on major new finds and important research in English, French or German, followed later by Arheoloski Pre- gled Archaeological Preview with annual summaries illyrlans recent lield-work.
The same body has also initiated a series of mono- graphs for major excavation reports or archaeological synth- eses. At the time of writing political tensions appear to have made concerted publication at the federal level more difficult, but the quality of archaeological publication remains high, “Stipcevic a, ; Munro for a first-hand account of work in progress at these sites and of the Sarajevo congress of In Albania the first systematic record ol ancient sues was made before the First World War by Carl I’atsch and subsequently by CamMo Praschniker kohn Arnold Schobcr Their topographical studies remain the basis oi modern studies of IHyrian sites, while between the wars Italian expeditions tended to be focused on classical sites on the coast, notablv Apollonia where major excavations were directed by 1 dilkes Rev.
Since the Second World War archaeological explo- ration has been impelled by a illyriana policy to establish the link between modern Albanians and ancient lllyrians.
LhC investigation of both prehistoric and classical sites, tge underway during the fifties and sixties, gained impetus in the seventies through a heightened political interest in the Albanian IHyrian heritage.
Research was centred on the archaeo og. Since al major archaeological research in Albania, including several conferences and colloquia attended by foreign specialists, has been published in the periodical Iliria, while the many activities of the Monuments Protection Service are recorded in Momt- mentet. A more technical study by the Polish scholar W. Several general works on th have appeared in Albania, 7 Now registered in the bibliographies of Stipcevicb,a and Skegro Rediscovery llryrlant 1 1 among which one maj include the proceedings ol the IHyrian illyfians published in volumes ol lliria.
A major compilation is Us lllyriens: Korkuti and the doyen ol Albanian archaeology F.
German technology has now furnished more than one fine visual record of Albanian archaeology: Kggebrecht produced for an exhibition at Hildesbeim during the summer ofwhile the monuments of Albanian Illyria arc well presented in a guide- book by Guntram Koch The guiding principles of orchaeological research are the following: It is no novelty that debates over the ethnic affinities nl ancient peoples in southeast Europe should be bound up with the antipathies of Serbs, Bulgars, Greeks and Albanians but the question of Kosovo has become more serious than at any time since it was first posed at the break-up of the Ottoman Empire.
For this reason the ethnic affinities ol the Dardanians, ancient inhabitants ot Kosovo, northern Mace- donia and southern Serbia, have attracted attention.
Albanians hold them to be Illyrians, ethnically homogeneous with the rest, while a Serbian view argues that Dardanians represent an intermingling of both Illyrian and Thracian elements. There is little danger of lasting damage being caused by arguments being conducted on these lines when the evidence is historical or epigraphic and remains in the public domain, but the damage is done when archaeological evidence is successively deployed to support one hypothesis with another.
These reconstructions of prehistory – ‘houses of cards’ according to one scholar – prove suprisingly difficult to demolish even long after their foundations have been shown not to exist.
Similar problems arise regarding the peoples of ancient Epirus, now divided between Albania and Greece. Against a widespread view that they spdke a form of Greek the Albanians argue that the Kpirotes were one with the rest of the Illyrians.
Who were the Illyrians and how valid are suggested definitions of Illyrians on the basis of archaeological and linguistic evidence, taken together or separately? How were Illyrians linked with other inhabitants of the Danube lands, Thracians, Daco-Moesians, Italic peoples, Greeks johb Celts, in their material culture and language? What happened to the Illyrians under Roman rule and how were they nohn by the process known as Romanization?
What connection did the illyrian emperors’ of the third and fourth centuries ad have with the peoples conquered by the first Roman emperor Augustus? Is there evidence for the survival of an Illyrian native culture during illyrianns Roman and early Byzantine periods?
What traces of Illyrians can be detected today in the culture of the South Slavs and Albanians? Garasanin and the comments of Benac b on lslami et al.
Illyrian landscapes’- I In UK nan lands are dominated by the results of Europe’s most recent phase of mountain building. On the east the main Alpine system divides, the illryians to form the Carpathians of Czecho- slovakia and Romania which illjrians double back as the Stara Planina of Bulgaria. The southern branch continues sou- iheastwards, parallel with the Adriatic, as the Dinaric system ol Yugoslavia and then into Albania and Greece as the Pindus range.
Between the two Alpine systems lies the great Hungarian or Pannonian plain, divided by the Bakony hills, where the Danube turns south at the great bend north of Budapest, into a smaller northwestern plain Kiss-Alfiild and the great plain Nagy-Alfold to the southeast. Drainage of this area is entirely io the Danube, which exits from the plain by the Iron Gates gorge through the Carpathians east of Belgrade. Europe’s great- est river, navigable from Ulm in southern Germany, lows for miles from its source in the Black Forest to its delta on the Black Sea.
Its major tributaries drain most of the Illyrian lands, from the Julian Hte in the northwest to the Alps of northern Albania. From this quarter heavy winter rains contrib- ute to a sustained How, partly cancelling out the summer maximum from the melting snow of the Illyriqns and the summer rainfall of the plains.